As a modern technology facing the future, related disciplines involved in robotics include sensors, computers, communications, control, artificial intelligence, microelectronics and other technical disciplines, bionics, materials science, mathematical methods and many other disciplines. Robotics can be considered as high and new technologies like networks, genes, communications, and computer technology.
1. Introduction to Intelligent Robot Technology
The definition of a robot in the mouths of Chinese scientists is an automated machine with a high degree of flexibility, because it has some intelligent abilities such as perception, planning, movement, and coordination, which are similar to humans or creatures, so its definition is in our eyes. There are many and varied. A set of robots mainly includes: (1) Sensors on or around the equipment, which can provide useful information feedback by sensing the surrounding environment and then to the equipment. (2) Wheel disk platform, arm or other equipment that can interact with the surrounding environment. (3) According to the actual situation, the control system executes the designated action and processes the sensor input according to the equipment operation.
Robots that can effectively improve the output and quality of products are the most primitive form of industrial robots, which are widely used in assembly, cutting, welding, rust removal, painting, etc., and effectively improve people's working conditions. As an inevitable development trend and fundamental result, robots are expected to be widely used and developed in society in the near future.
Industrial robots and special robots are two categories that experts in robot research divide robots into based on application needs. Industrial robots refer to robots that are multi-joint manipulators or multi-degree-of-freedom robots in the industrial manufacturing industry. They are used in non-manufacturing industries and serve humans. They are also called special robots other than the above-mentioned industrial robots. At present, from the perspective of application needs, robots are also divided into two categories by international scholars who study robotics: one is industrial robots in the production environment. The other category is service and bionic robots in non-industrial manufacturing environments.
Our country has made remarkable achievements in all aspects of industrial robots, special robots and intelligent robots. Although our country's robotics research started late, it has made rapid progress. In order to make my country's robots more advanced, we need to increase the research and development of single-chip technology.
2. SCM technology and intelligent robot control system
2.1 Drive system
The single-chip microcomputer controls the kinetic energy in the robot control system. The core operation is to apply chip technology to integrate the chip to achieve this requirement. In order to control the driving of the robot, it is necessary to strengthen and amplify the weak current signal, and to control the operation motor after the driving relay. In order to effectively protect the base and amplify the current, a transistor is added to the drive module. The unique feature of an automatic switch relay in the drive module is that it protects and converts the circuit, and then the circuit is reversed to realize the automatic circuit Adjust function, operate the machine forward and backward and other simple actions. The application of this technology relies on the drive module circuit. The advantage of the current input is that it will not interfere with the synchronous operation of other control systems, and the drive motor can operate safely. Ensure the accuracy of the robot's forward and backward movement.
2.2 Visual control system
The name of the robot vision system is actually a system that converts it into a signal that the robot can recognize, and then analyzes and interprets it to obtain images of objects in the external environment to identify objects. The visual capture and recognition functions of the human eye can be completed by the robot through the robot's vision system. The process of the actual movement of the robot is to first perform real-time positioning through the positioning sensor, after analog-to-digital conversion, and then amplify the signal power, and finally the position information is received and transferred to the microcontroller. The received signal is compared with the MCU with initial threshold before filtering. Finally, the signal is fed back to the drive motor. The control system will automatically adjust. The robot will walk in different directions according to the frequency of the motor speed input signal. The robot recognizes the external world entirely through visual perception technology.
2.3 Ground detection system
The ground detection system draws lessons from imitating the human auditory function, and uses the robot's receiving function to filter the sound signals for judgment and convert them into execution instructions. The robot automatically performs corresponding operations through the control system. When the sub-ultrasonic module installed in the robot, the corresponding operation is performed through the control system. When the sensor receives an external sub-ultrasonic signal, it will automatically imitate the human auditory function. In order to trigger the control module on the single-chip microcomputer during simulation (used for receiving sub-ultrasonic signals), a photoelectric switch is specially designed on the switch module. In order to maintain the switch on the single-chip microcomputer, the signal received by the control switch by default is a low-level new signal.
2.4 Correction step system
Two photoelectric couplers are installed in the baffles on the legs of the robot. During the walking test of the robot, the opening and closing of the photocouplers are controlled by the baffles on the legs. The normal walking of the robot relies on the single-chip microcomputer correction step system. When the corresponding control unit of the system receives alternating intermittent signals, if the signals received by the control system are superimposed and continuous, it means that the steps before and after the robot are not coordinated, and it is necessary immediately The robot's walking is corrected by the step correction system. The direct reason that causes the walking steps of the two feet of the robot to be different is that the general rotation rate of the two feet is different. In the actual movement of the robot, the coordinated pace disorder of the front and back, left and right, can only be corrected with the help of a correction step system (mainly realized by a photocoupler).
3. Development plan of intelligent robot control system
The robot's intelligent walking and various sensory functions can be realized by single-chip control technology. After the robot is started, it must be able to perform normal walking motions. It can give the robot an instruction similar to "searching for a target" by voice. As a corresponding operation instruction, the prompt "searching for a target" will appear on the LCD screen. When moving towards the specified target, the system will prompt through the language system when the robot finds the specified target. When the robot finds obstacles in the process of moving forward, it will pass the corresponding visual control system and infrared distance measuring system. In order to change the route, avoid obstacles, measure the relative position between the obstacle and the robot, and at the same time, a corresponding prompt will appear on the LCD screen. When triggered by an obstacle, the language system will be activated. The tactile system will be triggered while the robot is walking. The controller will receive the corresponding voice prompt, and the system will report the corresponding situation at the same time; the system has special faults in the road section ahead, etc. When the time, the corresponding voice warning is issued and the operation of backing or stopping is made. In order to ensure the normal walking of the robot, the correcting step system will be activated when the robot has a step error during the walking process to correct the asynchronous problem of the motor.
Four, bluetooth smart robot program design example
With the development of science and technology, mankind has successfully developed many modern and high-tech machinery and equipment, which often have incomparable advantages and powerful functions in some aspects. However, compared with creatures in nature, they are far behind in terms of structural characteristics, sports characteristics, adaptability, and survivability. This is because the creatures in nature have undergone hundreds of millions of years of adaptation, evolution, and development, and withstood harsh natural selection. This has made the organisms unique and ingenious in these aspects, and their biological characteristics have become perfect. Dao follows nature, learns from the natural world to obtain the inspiration of technological invention, and adopts the principle of bionics, which can often design machines and equipment with more flexible movement characteristics and more reasonable structure characteristics.
4.1 Principles of Intelligent Insect Robot Technology Development
Due to the deterioration of the earth’s environment and frequent occurrence of natural disasters, highly automated equipment that can adapt to complex, harsh, and dangerous environments is required to perform operations, ensure the safety of relevant personnel, and improve rescue efficiency and operational capabilities. And bionics is precisely through the study of the structure, shape, principle, behavior and interaction of biological systems to obtain design and research inspiration from the natural world, and to design machinery and equipment that have the advantages of both machines and biology. These machinery and equipment have many uses in military and disaster relief; for example, in military operations to conduct dangerous operations such as attacks and mine clearance, and enter dangerous environments during disaster relief to search and rescue personnel and transport materials; in addition, in human space exploration, Planetary exploration and deep-sea exploration also play an irreplaceable role in the exploration of unknown environments.
The design and research of intelligent insect robots mainly involve embedded technology, Bluetooth communication, sensors, digital electronics and analog electronics. With the rapid development of disciplines such as electronic technology and computer technology in recent years, embedded technology, as a comprehensive and intersecting technology, has also made considerable progress. Embedded system, as an application-based system that can perform specific functions and can be tailored to software and hardware, can adapt to the strict requirements of application systems for power consumption, cost, and reliability. Therefore, it has made great progress in recent years. As a typical application of the embedded system, the mobile terminal equipment commonly used at present-smart phones also belong to the category of embedded equipment. Using mobile embedded devices as control terminals to remotely and conveniently control embedded application products with special functions, many modern products have been born, which greatly facilitates people's life and work.
After more than 30 years of development, embedded technology has surpassed 4 stages: the initial stage of embedded technology is only a system designed and constructed using a single chip as the core programmable controller; later, it has developed to include a CPU and a simple operating system. The new embedded technology has entered the second stage of the development of embedded technology; the third stage is marked by a mature embedded system; the fourth stage is currently in the fourth stage, and its main symbol is the introduction of Internet technology, which is computer, The result of the integration of communications, microelectronics, and semiconductor technologies.
Since the Bluetooth communication technology was first proposed by Ericsson in 1994, due to its support for multi-device connection, which solved the problem of data synchronization, it has developed rapidly. The current management organization B luetooth SIG (Bluetooth SpecialInterest Group, Bluetooth Technology Alliance) has Released the 5th generation version "Bluetooth 5". At present, the more advanced Bluetooth modules adopt Bluetooth low energy (Bluetooth low energy, BLE) technology, which reduces the power consumption of the module while achieving longer-distance transmission.
In addition, as one of the three pillars of information technology, sensors, computers, and communication technology are all important indicators of the development of modern information technology. Sensors are an important means of obtaining information, which can convert specific measured physical quantities into usable output signals. With the advancement of modern science, sensor technology has also made considerable progress. In general, the development of sensor technology has gone through three stages: structural sensors, solid sensors, and smart sensors. Because of its close relationship with modern science, it has greatly promoted and assisted the further development of various disciplines. Many developed countries regard it as a sign of an era, and my country has also listed sensors as a key scientific research development in the "Tenth Five-Year Plan". One of the items.
Compared with wheeled robots, insect robots have unique advantages in unstructured and harsh geographic environments, and can reach places where conventional wheeled machinery and equipment cannot move. This article is based on the intelligent insect robot realized by the Arduino main control, which integrates the distance sensor, Bluetooth communication, infrared communication, signal light, buzzer and TTL serial voice module, and through the overall coordination control of the main control chip ATmega328, solves the problem in actual operation The problems encountered such as automatic obstacle avoidance, remote control, cluster interactive communication, intelligent prompts, etc., have stronger adaptability and flexibility in the face of complex terrain.
4.2 Overall architecture of intelligent insect robot
According to the main functional requirements of the intelligent insect robot, the overall hardware architecture shown in Figure 1 is designed.
Among them, the Bluetooth communication is realized through the Risym HC-05 wireless Bluetooth module, which is responsible for communicating with the mobile phone control terminal APP, receiving the instruction request from the APP, and transferring it to the ATmega328 microprocessor for execution. The GP2Y0A21 distance sensor monitors the obstacle information in the surrounding environment of the robot in real time, and sends the acquired sensor data to the ATmega328 microprocessor for processing. The power module is responsible for supplying power to the robot as a whole. The serial port debugging module is responsible for connecting with the PC for firmware programming and related debugging work. A total of 3 micro servo motors are integrated in the system to provide power for the robot to walk. The infrared communication module realizes the functions of receiving and transmitting, and provides support for cooperative communication between robots. The buzzer module is used to alert when the robot encounters obstacles or emergencies. The TTL serial voice module is used for voice prompts and voice interaction to users. The signal light module prompts the power status, Bluetooth connection status and data transmission status.
Five, intelligent robot program design process
5.1 Main control module
The core of the main control module is the ATmega328 microcontroller, the system clock frequency is 16 MHz, the normal operating voltage is DC 5 V, the main control module contains 4 digital input ports, 4 analog input ports, two P WM ports, 1 Group UART port, 1 group I2C port, 1 Micro USB interface, 2 groups of power ports.
5.2 Hardware interface design
(1) Interface overview: In order to realize the required functions of the robot, the integrated interfaces of the hardware main control board are shown in Table 1. Based on the structure and functional module design, the hardware main control board structure is shown in Figure 5.
(2) ICSP interface: ICSP-in circuit serial programmable, online serial programming, its essence is an online programming method, the main function is to compile and program user code into the microprocessor ROM.
5.3 Communication protocol
The communication between the robot and the mobile terminal adopts Bluetooth communication, and the architecture of the Bluetooth protocol can be divided into three parts from bottom to top: hardware layer, protocol layer, and application layer. Among them, the hardware layer mainly includes the link management layer (LM), baseband layer (BB) and radio frequency layer (RF). The protocol layer includes logical link control and adaptation protocol (L2CAP) and telephone communication protocol (TCS).
Similar to the commonly used Socket socket communication mode, Bluetooth Socket and Bluetooth Server Socket act as client and server respectively in Bluetooth Socket communication. First, the server-side Bluetooth Server Socket object creates a Bluetooth Socket object, and calls the accept() of the Bluetooth Server Socket to obtain it, and the client obtains it by calling the createRfcomm Socket To Service Record() of the Bluetooth Device; after the server starts the service, Accept() blocks until the client connect() successfully connects to the server, and the server returns the Bluetooth Socket object to the client. After the connection is established, the Bluetooth Socket objects of the server and the client can obtain the input and output streams, so as to carry out the next communication .
5.4 Robot software development
Perform Bluetooth connection and communication tests in sequence according to the Bluetooth connection process. First turn on the Bluetooth, search for the Bluetooth module integrated in the robot by searching the device for pairing. After the pairing is successful, the connection is established through CONNECT. After the connection is established, the robot can be controlled by the control button.
After the control test on the mobile end of the insect robot, an automatic obstacle avoidance test was carried out on the insect robot. The test results proved that the robot can move in a variety of irregular terrains and automatically avoid obstacles encountered within a reasonable range. In addition, through the joint test between multiple robots, the effectiveness of infrared cluster communication between the robots was verified, and the intelligent voice prompt and buzzer warning functions were tested by a specific robot. The result proved the TTL serial voice module Effectiveness.
6. History and development prospects of intelligent robots
An intelligent robot is an automated machine with some intelligent abilities similar to humans or other organisms, such as perception, planning, movement, and coordination, and is highly flexible. Compared with general robots, intelligent robots have the ability to perceive the surrounding environment, and can analyze the surrounding environment, adjust their behavior to meet the requirements of the operator, and even be able to meet the requirements of the operator with insufficient information and rapid changes in the environment. Complete the action. The application scenarios of intelligent robots have been greatly expanded with the continuous development of technology. In various fields such as industrial and agricultural development, social services, and military, intelligent robots have great development space and application prospects.
The development of robot technology is the result of the joint development of science and technology. Its development originated after the Second World War. The shortage of personnel and the increasing aging of the population resulted in an increasingly scarce labor force. Traditional robots cannot do without human resources. At this time, people’s demand for intelligent robots is constantly increasing, and the development of technology makes robots more and more intelligent.
We generally divide robots into three generations: the first generation is "programmable robots"; the second generation is "sensing robots"; and the third generation is intelligent robots. In the 1980s, the development of artificial intelligence showed a strong momentum. A few years later, the artistic robot AARON was born, capable of creating some abstract paintings. With the explosion of artificial intelligence, many intelligent robots have gradually emerged, and intelligent robots such as intelligent gardeners and surgical robots are emerging in endlessly. And now the development of intelligent robots has not stopped, and we are also looking forward to the birth of more convenient robots.
According to the current trend, intelligent robots will develop in a more intelligent direction: they can process more information, complete more complex instructions, have a more user-friendly human-machine interface, and have simpler operations. Since the birth of intelligent robots, the relationship with our daily lives has become closer and closer. From business to military to medical and other fields, there are all intelligent robots. As the functions of intelligent robots become more and more abundant, The more jobs are occupied by intelligent robots, and some jobs no longer need humans, many people begin to worry about their employment problems.
Seven, application scenarios of intelligent robots
7.1 The application of intelligent robots in business
The most common application of intelligent robots in business is the sweeping robot. The sweeping robot uses information fusion technology and machine vision technology to automatically complete the floor cleaning work in the room, thereby completing the floor cleaning. It uses its own radar to map the room layout, and automatically plans the best cleaning route, and can automatically return to the charging place for charging when the battery is insufficient.
Express sorting is also a typical application field of intelligent robots. Recently, the fully automatic express sorting robots of some express companies have attracted widespread attention. The express sorting robot mainly sorts small packages that are no longer than 60cm in length, no more than 50cm in width, and weighing less than 5kg. The sorter only needs to place the goods on the sorting robot, and the rest is handled by the sorting robot. The sorting robot can automatically scan and weigh the goods, and can automatically plan the best delivery path according to the delivery location of the goods.
7.2 The application of intelligent robots in the military
Intelligent military robots can perform various tasks more efficiently on the battlefield and replace humans in heavy or high-risk operations. Intelligent robots have broad application prospects in the military, so they are valued by countries all over the world. The "three defenses" detection robots can be used to detect, identify, mark and sample nuclear, chemical, and biological contamination on the battlefield.
Intelligent robots are mostly used in the military in the field of unmanned aerial vehicles. The Skyhawk UAV integrated with more advanced flight control systems developed by Beihang University can automatically search and track targets during reconnaissance; in electronic countermeasures, Only need the ground control personnel to send a command, Skyhawk UAV can automatically comprehensively process the target position, its own character equipment performance, its own flight altitude and speed and other information, automatically generate the best route, and automatically enter the attack state or the confrontation state. It also has the ability to strike targets automatically.
7.3 Application of intelligent robots in medical treatment
Intelligent robots can be used in medical treatment to diagnose diseases, such as analyzing medical images, judging diseases, and proposing treatment plans by comparing similar cases. In the medical field with complex information and huge scale, such as cancer treatment, it is difficult for humans to analyze all the information comprehensively, and misdiagnosis often occurs. Comprehensive analysis of all aspects of information, thereby reducing the rate of misdiagnosis, is the value of intelligent robot disease diagnosis. According to IBM, Watson may process information faster than any previous machine, and make diagnosis and treatment recommendations smarter. Watson can synthesize information obtained from various channels by asking the patient's illness and medical history, using artificial intelligence technology, etc., to quickly give diagnosis tips and treatment opinions. Watson can even diagnose patients more accurately than highly qualified doctors.
Surgery is an important method of treating patients, and when there are many patients in need of surgery, humans' limited physical strength, eyesight and energy are often difficult to cope with. The birth of surgical robots has greatly reduced the burden on humans. The high-magnification three-dimensional lens allows people to see more clearly, thereby improving the accuracy of surgery. The use of robotic arms can make the cut out wounds smaller. The surgeon's manipulation of the robotic arm for surgery also avoid To avoid the trouble of sweating during the operation, the intelligent shock absorption of the control system also avoids misoperation caused by the doctor's shaking hands.
The scene of the "Da Vinci" surgical robot suturing the grape skins that appeared in the past few years has made people marvel at the accuracy of the surgical robot. It can make the precise and tireless surgical robot a good helper in the field of human medical treatment.
8. Key technologies of intelligent robots
8.1 Human-computer interaction technology
Human-computer interaction is the technology of realizing human-computer dialogue in an effective way through computer input and output devices. With the development of computer technology, the dialogue languages between humans and computers have become more diverse. It can be sound signals, motion signals, or even brain wave signals.
Traditional robots can only perform actions in accordance with the programmed instructions. If the task needs to be changed, the program needs to be modified, or even a whole set of programs must be rewritten. Today's intelligent robots can already do it through advanced human-computer interaction technology. Modify the task instructions at any time, and there is no need to write the program, just a sentence or an action can let the robot execute another instruction. Compared with traditional robots, the interactive mode of intelligent robots is more convenient and flexible.
The application fields of human-computer interaction are very wide, such as motion recognition technology applied to wearable computers, tactile interaction technology applied to virtual reality, remote control robots and telemedicine, and intelligent voice input technology applied to smart phones.
8.2 Information Fusion Technology
Information fusion refers to the use of computer technology to automatically analyze and comprehensively process the observation information of a number of sensors obtained in time series under certain criteria to complete the required decision-making and estimation tasks. Comprehensive processing of various information is one of the values of intelligent robots. When the intelligent robot collects various information such as air pressure, temperature, humidity, etc., it needs to solve the problem of information redundancy, and information fusion must be carried out.
In the military field, the flight of an aircraft is affected by wind speed, wind direction, altitude and other factors. We need to comprehensively consider this series of information to make a decision. At this time, information fusion technology will be used. As mentioned above, the Tianying UAV's comprehensive processing of its mission equipment, target location, flight altitude and speed and other information is to perform information fusion on these series of parameters, and automatically generate the best route after the information fusion. decision making.
8.3 Machine Vision Technology
Machines need to perceive the external environment, and the most important thing is to obtain external information through machine vision technology. Machine vision refers to taking visual information as input, processing the information, and then extracting useful information for the machine.
Machine vision systems are widely used in fields such as working condition monitoring, finished product inspection and quality control in modern automatic production processes. For example, in medical image analysis, through machine vision technology, the medical system can convert image information into digital signals, so as to perform operations such as blood cell classification and counting of images and chromosome condition analysis; in metal flaw detection, machine vision technology The internal condition of the metal is analyzed.
Some areas involving unsuitable human working environment or human vision accuracy is not enough to meet the requirements, often use machine vision, similar to the automatic injury control system of metal plate surface, automobile body detection system, intelligent traffic management system, automobile production line Inspection systems are closely related to machine vision technology.
This paper studies and analyzes the working principles and related technologies of intelligent insect robots, and deeply explores the advantages and specific application scenarios of this type of robot in practical applications. Based on the above research and analysis, specific solutions are proposed for the insect robot's overall architecture, core modules, and system implementation, which can realize automatic obstacle avoidance, remote control, cluster communication interaction, intelligent prompts and other functions, and pass the test in the actual operating environment It was verified.
In addition, single-chip technology is widely used in industrial control, intelligent instruments, electromechanical products, household appliances and other fields, and is one of the cores of automatic control technology. The robot movement has become more coordinated, and the structural design and manufacturing has become more simplified. Because of the wide application of single-chip technology in the robot control system, the stability of the robot has been improved. At present, the application of single-chip technology in my country's robot control system is still in its infancy. The development of intelligent robots will also achieve a qualitative leap with the continuous development and improvement of single-chip control technology.
The development of intelligent robots has caused a considerable impact on traditional industries, but it has also spawned new professions similar to "robot assistants", just like the traditional machinery born in the industrial revolution that replaced manual work, but it also brought new The same profession. Human work will transition from simple and repetitive work to more creative work. The popularization of intelligent robots is unavoidable. We can only continuously improve our overall quality to avoid our substitution.